IPI International Potash Institute
IPI International Potash Institute

研究报告: e-ifc No. 38, September 2014

照片拍摄:E. Sokolowski

印度北方邦湖心平原蔬菜地块不同用量钾肥对蔬菜产量、效益及营养成分的影响

Tiwari, D.D.(1)(1a), S.B. Pandey(1), and N.K. Katiyar(1)
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摘要

(1)印度CSAU农业技术大学土壤农化系,Kanpur-208002,北方邦,印度
(1a)通讯作者:ddtiwari2014@gmail.com

2011-12到2012-13早春在印度北方邦坎普尔的钱德拉. 谢卡尔农业技术大学纳加尔,卡利安的蔬菜研究田进行了菜花、卷心菜、茄子和西红柿4种蔬菜在钾含量中等水平的土壤上对钾的需求试验。试验设计了5个钾肥施用处理,分别是0、40、60、80、100kg K2O ha-1,所有处理氮磷肥施用量一致,推荐的施肥量分别是120kg N ha-1和60kgP2O5。4种蔬菜在施用钾肥后产量都明显上升,各蔬菜产量最低的都是不施用钾肥的处理。当钾肥的施用量增加到100kg K2O ha-1时菜花、茄子、西红柿的产量和钾肥的产投纯利润也随之增高,然而,茄子在钾肥施用量为80kg K2Oha-1时产量和利润已达到最高。试验中各蔬菜产量结果证明即使土壤中钾元素中等,但是对这4种蔬菜而言要想取得更高的产量,仅仅依靠土壤中钾元素供应是不够的,必须增施钾肥。在这4种蔬菜上施用钾肥的产投比较高,为25~69,这表明钾肥施用经济风险小。化验分析所有蔬菜干物质中氮、磷、钾的含量,结果显示在钾肥施用量为60kg K2O ha-1时各蔬菜中3元素增加最明显,氮和磷的养分利用率最高。养分平衡计算显示菜花和卷心菜因氮元素的供应不足,从而引起负平衡。同样,在所有蔬菜中,除了西红柿,因钾的供应不足,易引起钾的负平衡。通过对4种蔬菜的试验得出钾肥施用不仅能提高效益,而且经济风险较低,这在茄子和西红柿上表现明显。菜花和卷心菜因为氮的供应不足从而没有实现最高产量的潜力,然而钾肥施用却提高了氮磷的养分利用率。我们还需要做进一步的研究,即增加氮钾肥的施用量可能会提高蔬菜的产量。

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