IPI International Potash Institute
IPI International Potash Institute

研究报告: e-ifc No. 41, June 2015

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印度贾坎德邦省在多种蔬菜作物上增强钾肥施用以提高产量和经济效益

Kumar, R.(1), S. Karmakar(2), A.K. Sarkar(2), N. Kumar Awasthi(3), and H.Magen(4)
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摘要

(1)土壤与农业化学系,Birsa 农业大学, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
(2)农学系, Birsa 农业大学, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
(3)国际钾肥研究所, India
(4)国际钾肥研究所, Switzerland
通讯作者: rkssacbau@rediffmail.com

在贾坎德邦州不同地区的农田进行了一系列的试验,研究当土壤中有效钾含量高的情况下各蔬菜,即四季豆(Phaseolus vulgaris)、茄子(Solanum melongena L.)、黄瓜(Cucumis sativus)、苦瓜(Momordica charantia)、马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum)、葫芦瓜(Lagenaria siceraria)、南瓜(Luffa acutangula)、红辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)、甜辣椒(Capsicum annuum var. glossum)对不同施钾肥处理的反应。试验设有5个钾肥施用处理,分别为:1)农民的习惯施肥(FFP),2)推荐施肥量的100%,且全部基施,3) 推荐施肥量的100%,一半基施,一半在开花期施用,4)推荐施肥量的150%,全部基施,5)推荐施肥量的150%,一半基施,一半在开花期施用。氮肥和磷肥的施用量依据推荐量施用,且各处理施用量保持一致。与农民的习惯施肥(FFP)相比,9种蔬菜作物在按照推荐钾肥施用量下施用时均显著增产,平均增产30%。如果加大钾肥施用量,即当施肥量为推荐施肥量的150%时,增产较小,仅比推荐施肥量高出22%,而且平均而言,不同蔬菜之间变化较大。对大多数蔬菜作物而言钾肥分次施加能增产,但是增产效果不是很大。各种蔬菜作物对钾的需求之间的差异要联系作物的生命周期、物候阶段、种植模式、收获物中钾和碳水化合物的含量进行讨论。总之,如果要开发蔬菜的生产潜力,寻求农民受益提高之路,施用钾肥至关重要。对大多数蔬菜作物的试验显示,推荐钾肥施用量应该重新验证和更新。分次施用钾肥对产量带来的积极影响表明随作物的种植季节施用钾肥是有益的。

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