IPI International Potash Institute
IPI International Potash Institute

研究报告: e-ifc No. 45, June 2016

巴西巴伊亚州西部塞拉多地区的雨养农业:免耕农作系统。照片拍摄:T. Wiendl.

巴西巴伊亚州西部中等质地的土壤上钾肥的施用方法

Wiendl, T.A.(1), and I. Döwich(2)
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摘要

(1) Wiendl Assessoria Agronomica Ltda. Travessa Antonio Pedro Pardi, 110, CEP 13418-575, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, toni@wiendlagronomica.com
(2) APDC - Associação de Plantio Direto no Cerrado, Luis Eduardo Magalhães, BA, Brazil, ingbert@ig.com.br
注:国际钾肥研究所(IPI)感谢Embrapa Solos对巴西这个项目的大力支持。

近几十年来,巴西大田作物产业已扩大到塞拉多地区贫瘠的砂质氧化土上。除了施用大量的石灰和磷(P)以外,对钾(K)的需求难以满足。这个长期研究(2005/06-2014/15)的目的,是评估适用于大豆-玉米轮作免耕系统下钾肥的施用方法时间和用量,并建立巴伊亚州西部轻质土上施钾的新标准。这里共享的数据结果,指的是2014/15年收获的大豆作物的数据。整整9年各试验小区对应的施肥处理保持不变,试验包括8个处理,分别为:不施肥对照磷肥对照基施低施用量钾肥、农民习惯施肥 (N-P-K,2-15-20)、基施高施用量钾肥、表施高施用量钾肥、分次施高施用量钾肥、农民习惯施肥+额外表施钾肥,其对应的年度钾肥施用量分别为0、0、60、83、120、120、120、203 kg K2O ha-1。除了不施肥对照,所有处理基施磷肥的量为62.3(农民习惯施肥)或96 kg P2O5 ha-1。对照处理的大豆产量为750~900 kg ha-1,而施钾处理的产量为 3300~3650 kg ha-1,钾肥施肥制度或者施用量之间没有显著产量差异。结果显示,钾肥供应对可持续大豆生产是至关重要的,因为贫瘠的砂质氧化土无法满足大豆对钾的需求。仅依靠秸秆还田不能满足高产作物对钾素的需求。基施、表施或分2次施用高施肥量的钾肥,钾的吸收保持不变,为60~70 kg K2O ha-1,而所施钾的回收率小于40~45 kg K2O ha-1,剩余的钾被浪费掉了。建议考虑分次施用钾肥,高施肥量钾肥施用时,土壤pH,OM和K2O的含量会变高,Al+H会变低。

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