IPI International Potash Institute
IPI International Potash Institute

IPI K Centre - Nutrient Removal and Nutrient Balance

IPI K Centre - Nutrient Removal and Nutrient Balance

Studies of soil nutrient balances confirm that unbalanced fertilization is still a widespread phenomenon. It is well known that farmers are often forced to take decisions about their fertilizer strategy that reflect economic rather than agronomic pressure. However, in the long run, with the aim to keep soil fertility at a sustainable level, a precise calculation of removal rates of nutrients by harvested crops is vital.

Moreover, it is not only the question of the harvested part of the crop. "More than half of all absolutely dry matter in the global harvest is in cereal and legume straws; in tops, stalks, leaves and shoots of tuber, oil, sugar and vegetable crops..." (Smil 1999). This global bulk of dry matter contains nutrients; the removal of the produce by harvest and the dry matter for other purposes (e.g. heating, animal feed, biofuels) means large removals of nutrients. Globally, the annual crop phytomass contains 75, 14 and 60 million tonnes of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K), respectively. With nutrient applications of N and P at similar levels to total nutrient content in crop phytomass removal (80 and 14 million tonnes, respectively; data for 1999), K is applied at a much lower level, to replenish only 35% of the K removed (Smil, 1999).

The issue of potassium removal, cycling and balance of potassium is hence of utmost importance.

The following items found on our web describe the methodologies for calculating nutrient balance under different agro climatic zones and the evidence for fertility losses as a consequent of unbalanced fertilization practices.

Smil, V. 1999. Crop residues: Agriculture's largest harvest. BioScience, 49:4, 299-308.

Publications

2014
Leaflets
English
Balanced Fertilization for Sustaining Crop Productivity
Proceedings of the IPI-PAU International Symposium, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India, 22-25 November, 2006. Volume I: Invited papers, 559 p., Volume II: Extended abstracts of poster sessions, 30 p. Edited by D.K. Benbi, M.S. Brar and S.K. Bansal. ISBN 978-3-9523243-2-5. International Potash Institute, Horgen, Switzerland, 559p.
2007
Proceedings
English
Nutrient Management in China: Part 1. Nutrient Balances and Nutrient Cycling in Agro-Ecosystems
419 pages, Proceedings of the IPI ISSCAS Workshop on Nutrient management in China.
2004
Proceedings
English
Nutrient Balances and the Need for Potassium
290 pages, 13th IPI-Congr., France
1986
Proceedings
English
1984
Proceedings
English
1983
Proceedings
English

Papers and presentations

Regionalização do Potássio no Brasil
Author: Rachel Bardy Prado e Ronaldo P. de Oliveira
Event: Apoio ao Uso Balanceado de Potássio na Agricultura Brasileira: 10 anos de parceria IPI e EMBRAPA, São Paulo, Brazil
Documents: Download presentation (pdf 5.74 MB)
09-10 Oct 2013
 
Portuguese
Correlações Espaciais no Mapeamento do Balanço de Potássio
Author: Rachel Bardy Prado e Ronaldo P. de Oliveira
Event: Apoio ao Uso Balanceado de Potássio na Agricultura Brasileira: 10 anos de parceria IPI e EMBRAPA, São Paulo, Brazil
Documents: Download presentation (pdf 1.52 MB)
09-10 Oct 2013
 
Portuguese
Adubação Potássica em Solos Leves
Author: José C. Polidoro, Paulo César Teixeira
Event: Apoio ao Uso Balanceado de Potássio na Agricultura Brasileira: 10 anos de parceria IPI e EMBRAPA, São Paulo, Brazil
Documents: Download presentation (pdf 7.19 MB)
09-10 Oct 2013
 
Portuguese
State Wise Approaches to Crop Nutrient Balances in India
Author: T. Satyanarayana and R.K. Tewatia
Event: IPI-OUAT-IPNI International Symposium 2009: Potassium Role and Benefits in Improving Nutrient Management for Food Production, Quality and Reduced Environmental Damages, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
Documents: Presentation (pdf 537 kB)
05-07 Nov 2009
 
English
Site-Specific K Management in Rice Based Cropping Systems in India
Author: S.K. Sanyal, M. S. Gill and K. Majumdar
Event: IPI-OUAT-IPNI International Symposium 2009: Potassium Role and Benefits in Improving Nutrient Management for Food Production, Quality and Reduced Environmental Damages, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
Documents: Presentation (pdf 397 kB)
05-07 Nov 2009
 
English
Potassium Dynamics in Soil Under Different Cropping Systems and Nutrient Management Practices
Author: Ingrid Öborn
Event: IPI-OUAT-IPNI International Symposium 2009: Potassium Role and Benefits in Improving Nutrient Management for Food Production, Quality and Reduced Environmental Damages, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
Documents: Presentation (pdf 746 kB)
05-07 Nov 2009
 
English
Implementing Site-Specific Potassium Management for Rice Based Cropping Systems
Author: Roland J. Buresh, Mirasol Pampolino and Christian Witt
Event: IPI-OUAT-IPNI International Symposium 2009: Potassium Role and Benefits in Improving Nutrient Management for Food Production, Quality and Reduced Environmental Damages, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
Documents: Presentation (pdf 378 kB)
05-07 Nov 2009
 
English
GIS Based Soil Fertility Mapping for SSNM at Village Level in China
Author: Ping HE, Hongting WANG, Jiyun JIN
Event: IPI-OUAT-IPNI International Symposium 2009: Potassium Role and Benefits in Improving Nutrient Management for Food Production, Quality and Reduced Environmental Damages, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
Documents: Presentation (pdf 738 kB)
05-07 Nov 2009
 
English
Evaluation of Soil Fertility and Partial Nutrient Balances for Improved Fertilizer Recommendations Under Intensive Agriculture in India
Author: M.S. Brar and Dinesh K. Benbi
Event: IPI-OUAT-IPNI International Symposium 2009: Potassium Role and Benefits in Improving Nutrient Management for Food Production, Quality and Reduced Environmental Damages, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
Documents: Presentation (pdf 249 kB)
05-07 Nov 2009
 
English
Potassium demand and balance in Czech and Slovak
Author: Pavel Čermák, Michaela Budňáková, Stanislav Torma
Event: IPI Open Forum on Potassium Research in Central Europe, Satellite Event to the New Ag Conference, Budapest, Hungary
Documents: Paper (pdf 384 kB)
22 Mar 2007
 
English
Potassium application and nutrient balance in Bulgaria
Author: Margarita Nikolova
Event: IPI Open Forum on Potassium Research in Central Europe, Satellite Event to the New Ag Conference, Budapest, Hungary
Documents: Paper (pdf 83.2 kB)
22 Mar 2007
 
English
Potassium Nutrition in Balanced Fertilization of a Soybean-Wheat Cropping System in Madhya Pradesh, India
Editors: IPI
Event: e-ifc 11
Documents: Paperpaper (pdf 143 kb)
01 Mar 2007
 
English
Balanced Fertilization under intensive cropping system in Egyptian agriculture
Author: A. El Hadi, A.H Soliman
Event: IPI-AFA-IMPHOS seminar on "Balanced Fertilization for Optimizing Plant Nutrition", Intercontinental Hotel, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt
Documents: Paper (pdf 302 kB)
08 Feb 2007
 
English
The need for Potassium fertilization in rice and experiences from a long-term experiment in Indonesia
Editors: IPI
Event: e-ifc 10
Documents: Paper
01 Dec 2006
 
English
Balanced crop nutrition: Fertilizing for crop and food quality
Author: H. Magen
Event: IFA Agriculture Conference: Optimizing Resource Use Efficiency for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture, Kunming, China
Documents: Paper (pdf 169 kB)Presentation (pdf 681 kB)
27 Feb-02 Mar 2006
 
English
Long-term potassium balance on field, farm and country levels
Author: T. Popp and A. Gransee
Event: AUP-IMPHOS-IPI Field Day and Seminar, Bierzglinek, Poland
Documents: Paper (pdf 704 kB)
08 Jun 2005
 
English
Balanced fertilization, the key to improve fertilizer use efficiency
Author: Dr. A. Krauss
Event: AFA 10th International Annual Conference, Cairo, Egypt
Documents: Paper
20-22 Jan 2004
 
English
Promoting Balanced Fertilization in India - Policies and Economic Issues
Author: M.R. Motsara
Event: IPI PRII K in nutrient management for sustainable crop production in India, New Delhi, India
Documents: Paper (pdf 75.1 kB)
03-05 Dec 2001
 
English
Balanced fertilization in WANA Region
Author: Dr. A. Krauss
Event: IPI-NCARTT Regional Workshop on Potassium and water management in West Asia and North Africa, Amman, Jordan
Documents: Paper
05-08 Nov 2001
 
English
Strategies for Improving Balanced Fertilization
Author: Dr. A. Krauss
Event: Production and International Trade Conference, Shanghai, China
Documents: Paper
17-19 Oct 2000
 
English
Quality production at balanced fertilization: the key for competitive marketing of crops
Author: Dr. A. Krauss
Event: 12th CIEC International Symposium on Role of fertilizers in sustainable agriculture, Suceava, Romania
Documents: Paper
21-22 Aug 2000
 
English
Balanced fertilization: Integral part of sustainable soil management
Author: Dr. A. Krauss
Event: Expo 2000, Science in Dialogue: Sustainable Soil Management, Hanover, Germany
Documents: Paper
15 Aug 2000
 
English
Feed the soil to feed the people
Editors: IPI
Event: ifc 4
Documents: Paper
01 Sep 1999
 
English
Versatile, capable K
Editors: IPI
Event: ifc 3
Documents: Paper
01 Mar 1999
 
English

Scientific abstracts

Yield and Potassium Balance in a Wheat-Maize Cropping System of the North China Plain
Chun-e He, Zhu Ouyang, Zhen-rong Tian and Harwood D. Schaffer
Agron. J. 104(4):1016-1022
2012
 
English
Ability of Sorption-Desorption Experiments to Predict Potassium Leaching from Calcareous Soils
Jalali,M., and Z.Kolahchi.
J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 171:1-10 (2008)
2008
 
English
Nutrient Balance in Rice
Panda, D., R.N. Samantaray, A.K. Misra, H.K. Senapati.
Indian J. of Fertilizers 3(2):33-38 (2007)
2007
 
English
Nutrient use Efficiencies and Leaching of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems in Sweden
Torstensson,G., H. Aronsson and L. Bergstrom
Agron. J. 98:603-615 (2006)
2006
 
English
Spatial and Temporal Variability of N, P and K Balances for Agroecosytems in China
Shen Run-Ping, Sun Bo and Zhao Qi-Guo
Pedosphere 15(3): 347-355 (2005)
2005
 
English
Balance and Changes in the Content of Exchangeable Potassium in Arable Soils of Belarus
Bogdevitch, I. M., Lapa, V. V. and Ochkovskaya L. V.
Agrochemistry 1:46-50 (2004)
2004
 
Russian
In your Language

Choose your Crop

Choose your App
K Gallery for iPad and iPhone available now from the Apple App Store
Infographics
The Role of Potassium (K) in the Plant (in Urdu)
Potassium and Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) in Urdu
Potassium in Soil and Plant Systems (in Urdu)
IPI profile infographic
Chloride - an essential nutrient
Potassium and Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE)
Managing Water and Fertilizer for Sustainable Agricultural Intensification - infographic
Potassium Improves your Crop Quality
Potassium Improves your Health
Potassium in Soil and Plant Systems
The Role of Potassium (K) in the Plant
What does a Plant Need to Live
Assessment of the Impact of Targeted Use of Fertilizer on Irrigated Rice in Asia
The Role of Potassium (K) in the Plant (in Urdu)

New publication