IPI International Potash Institute
IPI International Potash Institute

研究报告: e-ifc No. 38, September 2014

印度Narendra Deva农业技术大学(NDUAT)水稻试验田,Kumarganj, Faizabad, UP, India.
摄影:E. Sokolowski.

苗期单施钾肥或磷钾肥配合施用可提高淹水条件下水稻品种Swarna-Sub1的成活率和产量

Singh, A.K.(1)(1a), P. Singh(1), V.N. Singh(1), A.H. Khan(1), S. Singh(2), A.K. Srivastava(2), U.S. Singh(2), A.M. Ismail(3), and S.M. Haefele(4)
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摘要

(1)NDUAT农业技术大学, Kumarganj, Faizabad (UP), India
(2)国际水稻所 (IRRI), 印度新德里
(3)国际水稻所 (IRRI), 菲律宾Los Baños
(4)Adekaude大学Waite校区,澳大利亚植物功能基因组学研究中心, 澳大利亚 Adelaide
(1a)通讯作者 assinghkumar3@gmail.com

耐涝品种SUB1的引进极大地提高了低洼地水稻的产量,平均每公顷增产超过2t。考虑到这些品种的优势,北方邦政府在易受水淹的东部旱作低地地区大量培育SUB1耐涝品种。然而,很少有人注意到苗期营养,尤其是N、P、K肥的施用能极大地促进SUB1品种的生长,发挥其优势。鉴于此,笔者于2010、2011年雨季在印度NDUAT农业技术大学进行了相关的肥料研究。试验设7个处理,播种后10天施肥,氮肥选择尿素,磷肥选择过磷酸钙,钾肥选择氯化钾,25天以后秧苗移栽到室外的下沉池塘。移栽15天后植株淹水13天,在排水5天和15天后分别记录植株存活 率和恢复情况。在移栽前、浸水前、排水后、恢复后分别记录植株生长状况,进行养分分析。试验结果显示,处理5(0-0-40 kg N-P-K ha-1)单施钾肥和处理6(0-60-40 kg N-P-K ha-1)钾肥配施高剂量的磷肥在植株淹水13天后排水,植株成活率明显高于其他处理。处理1(40-40-40 kg N-P-K ha-1)氮磷钾肥配合施用下水下幼苗的延长度最大,为25.4%,然而处理6(0-60-40 kg N-P-K ha-1)和处理 5(0-0-40 kg N-P-K ha-1)的株高最大。排水后植株叶片中的氮磷钾的富集和吸收随施用量的减少而减少。此外,处理5(0-0-40 kg N-P-K ha-1)的产量最高,处理6(0-60- 40 kg N-P-K ha-1)次之,这两个处理明显高于其他处理。钾肥的施用与苗期植株营养吸收、淹水条件下的存活、产量呈正相关。本试验研究显示在水稻苗期单施钾肥或者 磷钾肥配合施用能使淹水后的植株快速复活,增加抵抗力,显著促进排水后的水稻的存活和再生。

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